The genetics of FIRES and status epilepticus in 2023

FIRES. As a rare and severe epilepsy syndrome, febrile-infection related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is characterized by refractory status epilepticus (RSE) preceded by a febrile illness and often leads to prolonged hospitalizations, cognitive impairment, and intractable epilepsy. There are currently no clear causative etiologies identified in FIRES, and the underlying genetic architecture remains elusive. Here is a brief summary of our recent manuscript on the genetics of FIRES and refractory status epilepticus. This is what we learned about one of the most enigmatic conditions in child neurology.

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Understanding the genetics of FIRES

FIRES. Without a clear trigger, some children suddenly develop super-refractory status epilepticus, ongoing seizure activity that is difficult to control despite maximal therapy in the intensive care unit. In cases when the onset of seizures is preceded by a febrile illness, these rare conditions are referred to as FIRES (Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome). Understanding why children develop FIRES has been an ongoing quest, and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. FIRES shares many features with some of the known genetic developmental and epileptic encephalopathies. In a recent study, we tried to understand the genetic basis of FIRES using exome sequencing and HLA sequencing. We were unable to identify genetic causes for FIRES, but we found interesting candidate genes and demonstrated that the genetic architecture of FIRES is substantially different from what we see in other genetic epilepsies. Continue reading