The mitochondrial box cutter – an unexpected role for PMPCB in neurodegeneration

MPP. Mitochondria are indispensable for cellular energy production and require constant protein import, as most mitochondrial genes are encoded in the nucleus. In order for proper targeting, mitochondrial proteins have a specific presequence, which is removed once a protein has found its way into the mitochondria. This function is accomplished by the mitochondrial processing peptidase MPP, which is encoded by the PMPCA and PMPCB genes. In a recent publication in the American Journal of Human Genetics, we identified PMPCB as a novel gene for a complex neurodegenerative condition in childhood and discovered a new disease mechanism for neurological disorders. However, epileptic encephalopathy that initially led to the inclusion of our initial RES study was only one extreme of an unusual disease spectrum.  Continue reading

Finding the missing sodium channel – SCN3A in epileptic encephalopathy

Sodium channel. Voltage-gated channels for sodium ions are a crucial component of helping neurons depolarize and repolarize in a way that enables generation of action potentials. However, in order to function properly, voltage-gated ion channels co-exist in a fragile balance, and genetic alterations leading to functional changes in these channels are known causes of disease. SCN1A, SCN2A, and SCN8A have been implicated as causes for human epilepsy. However, SCN3A encoding the Nav1.3 channel, one of the most obvious candidates, could not be linked to disease so far. In a recent publication, we were able identify disease-causing mutations in this major neuronal ion channel. Interestingly, patients with an early onset and the most severe presentation had a prominent gain-of-function effect that responded to known antiepileptic medications. Continue reading