NMDA receptors and brain malformations: GRIN1-associated polymicrogyria

Ion channels and brain malformations. When the “channelopathy” concept first emerged – the idea that dysfunction of neuronal ion channels leads to neurological disease including epilepsy – it seemed implausible that such dysfunction could lead to malformations of cortical development. However, recent research has suggested that ion channel dysfunction may indeed be linked with brain malformations. In 2017, we saw convincing evidence that germline de novo variants in GRIN2B can cause malformations of cortical development. Some suggestive, but less conclusive, evidence has also linked SCN1A and SCN2A to brain malformations. Now Fry and collaborators demonstrate that de novo pathogenic variants in GRIN1 can also cause significant polymicrogyria, expanding the phenotypic spectrum of GRIN1-related disorders. As a disclaimer, I am also a co-author on the publication by Fry and collaborators. Continue reading

PCDH19-related epilepsy: understanding cellular interference

Protocadherins. PCDH19-related epilepsy is the second most common genetic epilepsy, behind Dravet syndrome. PCDH19-related epilepsies display the unusual X-linked inheritance pattern in which heterozygous females are affected but hemizygous males are unaffected. Similarly, somatic mosaic males have also been reported. PCDH19 encodes protocadherin 19, a calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecule that is highly expressed in the central nervous system. The long-hypothesized pathomechanism has been cellular interference, although experimental support has so far been lacking. Now, Pederick and collaborators provide evidence that supports the cellular interference mechanism in PCDH19-related epilepsies, bringing us closer to understanding the biology of this unusual genetic epilepsy. Continue reading