How to find recessive disease genes for epileptic encephalopathies

The E2 story continues. There has been major progress in identifying the role of de novo mutations in infantile spasms and other epileptic encephalopathies. Over the last two years, more than 20 new genes for epileptic encephalopathies were discovered and we have good evidence suggesting that de novo mutations play a major role in these disorders. Moreover, we have gotten a good sense on how complicated it can be to call a de novo mutation pathogenic given the flood of rare genetic variants in the human genome. However, de novo mutations are not what we think about clinically when assessing a patient with new-onset epileptic encephalopathy. In a clinical setting, we are often concerned about underlying metabolic disorders, many of which are recessive. Accordingly, we felt that the next task of the E2 consortium was to assess the role of inherited variants in epileptic encephalopathies. Just to tell you in advance, it is not as easy as it sounds.

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Transmission of rare variants in parent-offspring trios – power or no power?

My untested assumption. Recently, I have boasted quite a bit about the power of the trio design, i.e. the inclusion of patients and parents in the analysis of rare genetic variants. Rare variants, in contrast to monogenic variants that arise de novo, are usually transmitted from unaffected parents and are the big unknown of modern day genetic studies. Much of the missing heritability may be accounted for by rare variants, but identifying these variants from genomic noise is difficult. Power calculations for association studies usually suggest that thousands, if not tens of thousands, of patients are necessary to identify these variants with sufficient statistical certainty, a sample size that the field of epilepsy research may never arrive at. So what about switching to parent-offspring trios? Would this help us? Follow me on a brief statistical journey through the land of rare variants. Continue reading