NMDA receptors and brain malformations: GRIN1-associated polymicrogyria

Ion channels and brain malformations. When the “channelopathy” concept first emerged – the idea that dysfunction of neuronal ion channels leads to neurological disease including epilepsy – it seemed implausible that such dysfunction could lead to malformations of cortical development. However, recent research has suggested that ion channel dysfunction may indeed be linked with brain malformations. In 2017, we saw convincing evidence that germline de novo variants in GRIN2B can cause malformations of cortical development. Some suggestive, but less conclusive, evidence has also linked SCN1A and SCN2A to brain malformations. Now Fry and collaborators demonstrate that de novo pathogenic variants in GRIN1 can also cause significant polymicrogyria, expanding the phenotypic spectrum of GRIN1-related disorders. As a disclaimer, I am also a co-author on the publication by Fry and collaborators. Continue reading

Surrendering to genomic noise – de novo mutations in schizophrenia

Heterogeneity. Family-based exome sequencing or trio exome sequencing for de novo mutations is currently the method of choice to identify genetic risk factors in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, given the increasingly recognized variability in the human genome, the hunt for causative de novo mutations is sometimes an uphill battle – it is impossible to distinguish causal mutations from random events unless genes are affected repeatedly. In a recent publication in Nature, Fromer and colleagues present the most comprehensive search for de novo mutations in schizophrenia to date. They observe an incredible genetic heterogeneity that reflects the genetic architecture of neurodevelopmental disorders. Continue reading