Have we given up on the genetics of febrile seizures?

Fever, genes, and seizures. Undoubtedly, febrile seizures are the most common epilepsy syndrome in humans. Up to 5% of children have febrile seizures. In most children, these febrile seizures are self-limiting, and there is no recurrence. Usually, no long-term treatment is required. We know from family studies and twin studies that febrile seizures have a significant genetic component. Now here are two surprising facts: first, the genetic contribution to febrile seizures is entirely unknown. Secondly, to my knowledge, the genetic contribution to the most common epilepsy syndrome in man has not been addressed in any of the current large-scale studies. Let’s review why this is the case and why we should change this. Continue reading

Magnesium, epilepsy, and CNNM2 mutations

Electrolytes. Sodium, calcium, and magnesium – I usually tell my students that imbalances in these serum electrolytes may result in seizures, when levels fall under a critical threshold. Amongst these imbalances, hypomagnesemia, a reduction of the serum magnesium level below 0.7 mmol/L, is a very rare cause of seizures, particularly in a pediatric population. However, there are genetic conditions that result in reduced magnesium levels and lead to neurological complications. In a recent paper in PLOS Genetics, the phenotype of CNNM2 mutation carriers is investigated – and magnesium is only the beginning of the story. Continue reading