Beyond recessive – KCNC1 mutations in progressive myoclonus epilepsy

PME. The progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PME) are a particular subtype of seizure disorders characterized by progressive myoclonus, generalized seizures and cognitive deterioration. Known causes of PME include recessive mutations in several well-known genes, but the genetic cause is unknown in a significant proportion of patients. Now, in a recent paper in Nature Genetics, de novo mutations in KCNC1 are identified as a novel cause of progressive myoclonus epilepsies. In addition to elucidating the genetic basis in a significant subset of patients with PME, the authors demonstrate that de novo mutations play an important role in a group of diseases usually thought to be recessive. Continue reading

Critical brain-expressed exons and de novo mutations in autism

Selection. De novo mutations in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, schizophrenia, and intellectual disability raise an important question: are the mutations identified in patients pathogenic or are they simply genomic noise? A recent study in Nature Genetics tries to answer this question by looking at expression of particular exons in the brain and the overall mutational burden in these exons. They come up with critical exons, which seem to be particularly vulnerable in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Continue reading

The top three publications in epilepsy genetics 25 years ago

Looking back. In this week’s ILAE Genetics Commission post, we would like to look 25 years back and examine the most important publication in the field in 1989, the year the Berlin wall fell. What concepts did we have back then and how did our understanding of epilepsy and genes change? Here are the top three publications of 1989. Continue reading

This is what you will see in epilepsy genetics in the next five years

Welcome to our new blog. We have moved our blog to a new server, and this is the first post on our new platform. Let’s start out this new era with a general overview of what will happen in the field of epilepsy genetics in the next five years. We definitely plan to follow the developments as we did over the last two years. Here are the six things that we will look back upon in five years. Continue reading

The OMIM epileptic encephalopathy genes – a 2014 review

EIEE1-19. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is one of the most frequently accessed online databases for information on genetic disorders. Genes for epileptic encephalopathies are organized within a phenotypic series entitled Early Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy (EIEE). The EIEE phenotypic series currently lists 19 genes (EIEE1-19). Let’s review the evidence for these genes as of 2014. Continue reading

The return of the h-current: HCN1 mutations in atypical Dravet Syndrome

Hyperpolarization. More than a quarter of a century ago, physiologists identified an electrical current in neurons and cardiac myocytes that behaved so strangely that it was called the “queer” or “funny” current: it paradoxically caused depolarization upon hyperpolarization. This current was finally named h-current and is mediated by HCN channels. The h-current has been associated with epilepsy through functional studies, but a genetic link has been elusive so far. In a recent publication in Nature Genetics, de novo mutations in HCN1 are identified in patients with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies resembling Dravet Syndrome. Continue reading

GABRA1 and STXBP1 as novel genes for Dravet Syndrome

Beyond SCN1A. Dravet Syndrome is a severe fever-associated epileptic encephalopathy. While the large majority of patients with Dravet Syndrome carry mutations in the SCN1A gene, the genetic basis is unknown in up to 20% of patients. Some female patients with Dravet-like epilepsies have mutations in PCDH19, but other than this, no additional major gene for typical Dravet Syndrome is known. In a recent paper in Neurology, de novo mutations in GABRA1 and STXBP1 are identified as novel causes for Dravet Syndrome. In addition, several SCN1A-negative patients were shown to have mutations in SCN1A that were initially missed. Continue reading

Papers of the week – GABRA1 and STXBP1 in Dravet, gene therapy & synonymous mutations in cancers

FASTA, FASTQ, SAM, BAM, BWA, GC, GATK, IGV. Phew. Day 2 at the EuroEPINOMICS bioinformatics workshop in Leuven. Usually my work starts after the initial NGS raw data quality control and mapping procedures. Today’s topics are supposed to improve my understanding of sequencing analysis and NGS data interpretation. While we are still struggling, other scientists have done their home work already. Here are some of the remarkable publications from this week.

Leuven

Biologists, physicians and computer scientist at the EuroEPINOMICS bioinformatics workshop 2014 in Leuven

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